There are a number of different types of sensors which can be used as essential components in numerous designs for machine olfaction systems. Electronic Nose (or eNose) sensors fall under five categories, conductivity sensors, piezoelectric sensors, Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), optical sensors, and these employing spectrometry-based sensing methods.
Conductivity sensors could be made up of metal oxide and polymer elements, each of which exhibit a modification of resistance when in contact with Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). In this particular report only Metal Oxide Semi-conductor (MOS), Load Sensor and Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is going to be examined, as they are well researched, documented and established as vital element for various machine olfaction devices. The application form, where proposed device will be trained on to analyse, will greatly influence the choice of sensor.
A torque sensor, torque transducer or torque meter is a device for measuring and recording the torque over a rotating system, including an engine, crankshaft, gearbox, transmission, rotor, a bicycle crank or cap torque tester. Static torque is comparatively very easy to measure. Dynamic torque, on the contrary, can be difficult to measure, because it generally requires transfer of some effect (electric, hydraulic or magnetic) through the shaft being measured to some static system.
A good way to achieve this is to condition the shaft or perhaps a member linked to the shaft with a number of permanent magnetic domains. The magnetic characteristics of these domains can vary according to the applied torque, and thus can be measured using non-contact sensors. Such magnetoelastic torque sensors are generally employed for in-vehicle applications on racecars, automobiles, aircraft, and hovercraft.
Commonly, torque sensors or torque transducers use strain gauges placed on a rotating shaft or axle. Using this method, a method to power the strain gauge bridge is necessary, in addition to a way to get the signal from your rotating shaft. This is often accomplished using slip rings, wireless telemetry, or rotary transformers. Newer types of torque transducers add conditioning electronics as well as an A/D converter towards the rotating shaft. Stator electronics then read the digital signals and convert those signals to Miniature Load Cell, such as /-10VDC.
A more recent development is the usage of SAW devices attached to the shaft and remotely interrogated. The stress on these tiny devices since the shaft flexes can be read remotely and output without resorting to attached electronics on the shaft. The probable first use within volume will be in the automotive field as, of May 2009, Schott announced it has a SAW sensor package viable for in vehicle uses.
An additional way to measure torque is by means of twist angle measurement or phase shift measurement, whereby the angle of twist resulting from applied torque is measured by making use of two angular position sensors and measuring the phase angle between the two. This method can be used in the Allison T56 turboprop engine.
Finally, (as described in the abstract for all of us Patent 5257535), if the mechanical system involves a right angle gearbox, then the axial reaction force gone through by the inputting shaft/pinion may be related to the torque gone through by the output shaft(s). The axial input stress must first be calibrated against the output torque. The input stress can easily be measured via strain gauge measurement in the input pinion bearing housing. The output torque is definitely measured utilizing a static torque meter.
The torque sensor can function like a mechanical fuse and is also a key component to get accurate measurements. However, improper setting up the torque sensor can harm the device permanently, costing time and money. Hence, cdtgnt torque sensor has to be properly installed to make certain better performance and longevity.
The performance and longevity of the torque sensor along with its reading accuracy will be afflicted with the style of the Tension Compression Load Cell. The shaft becomes unstable in the critical speed in the driveline and results in torsional vibration, which can damage the torque sensor. It is required to direct the strain with an exact point for accurate torque measurement. This point is usually the weakest reason for the sensor structure. Hence, the torque sensor is purposely designed to be among the weaker aspects of the driveline.